Long term follow up case control studies have not identified differences in cancer rates in trans patients undergoing hormone therapy compared to birth-sex controls, however these studies had many limitations.[1,2] Insufficient evidence exists to determine if transgender people increased or decreased overall as well as organ-specific cancer risk. Primary care providers should conduct an organ based routine cancer screening for all transgender patients in accordance with current guidelines as a component of comprehensive primary care. As a rule, if an individual has a particular body part or organ and otherwise meets criteria for screening based on risk factors or symptoms, screening should proceed regardless of hormone use (Grading: X C S). Therefore, an ongoing and thorough medical and surgical history is crucial to determine an individual patient's screening needs.
- Wierckx K, Elaut E, Declercq E, Heylens G, De Cuypere G, Taes Y, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancer during cross-sex hormone therapy in a large cohort of trans persons: a case-control study. Eur J Endocrinol Eur Fed Endocr Soc. 2013 Oct;169(4):471-8.
- Wierckx K, Mueller S, Weyers S, Van Caenegem E, Roef G, Heylens G, et al. Long-term evaluation of cross-sex hormone treatment in transsexual persons. J Sex Med. 2012 Oct 1;9(10):2641-51.